375 - Earthquake Refugee Shacks
Woody: [00:00:00] It's Outside Lands San Francisco, the podcast of the Western Neighborhoods Project. I'm Woody LaBounty.
David: And I'm David Gallagher.
Nicole: And I'm Nicole Meldahl.
Woody: David! Nicole!
David: Woody! Hey Nicole!
Nicole: Hey fellas.
David: This is, this is another remotely recorded podcast for us, so we're looking at each other on TV screens.
Woody: Yeah, you know, usually we don't know what we're talking about, but now we remotely don't know what we're talking about.
Nicole: And we're all dressed like complete stay-at-home goofballs.
Woody: I'm growing a beard.
Nicole: Me too.
David: I dress this way all the time.
Nicole: Actually, that is how David dresses in our freezing cold office.
Woody: So last week I said, I don't know what I said last week. However, [00:01:00] today, this day, 114 years ago, something happened.
David: Long time listeners will know what that something might be.
Woody: I don't think many longtime listeners were around when this happened, but they know from us talking about it. This is the anniversary of the 1906 earthquake and the beginning of the three days of fires, which pretty much destroyed San Francisco.
David: Yeah, absolutely. And, and for the first time in many years, there was no remembrance out at Lotta’s Fountain. We, because we're sheltering in place from the Coronavirus, they canceled the commemoration. I, I hesitate to call it a celebration, because it's really not that. But for years everyone would get together at 5:12 AM [00:02:00] at Lotta’s Fountain on Third and Market, because that's when the earthquake happened.
Nicole: And that's something that every San Francisco resident should go to at some point. You guys took me my first time a few years ago. Jamie O'Keefe got me on to a vintage San Francisco Fire Department vehicle and we paraded through the city. It was quite an experience, I'm really glad I got to do it.
Woody: Yeah, I often say that that was the biggest thing to happen to San Francisco. I mean, people talk about the Gold Rush and the Summer of Love, and I don't even know what else, but I feel like the earthquake really defined San Francisco in two ways. Well one, it destroyed it and let it start over, which kind of gives us the San Francisco we have today. It's a marking point between the early days and the beginnings of this city to what we pretty much see today. And the second thing is it established San Francisco, really established [00:03:00] it, as this Phoenix. As this city that can recover and come back from a giant disaster which we're kind of in right now. So, it's a, it's very appropriate to be talking about this. But this is a Western Neighborhoods Project podcast, so I assume we're going to talk about some things that happened not only in the whole city on this date in 1906, but things that maybe happened on the West side of town. Including a project that we were very closely affiliated with. So first, David, tell us a little bit about this earthquake thing.
David: Well, as I mentioned, the earthquake struck at 5:12 AM and lasted about forty-five seconds. The magnitude has been estimated at 7.9. I mean, the Richter scale had not been developed yet, so, I mean, that's what they kind of guess. I think there's estimates between 7.9 and 8.3. One of the funny things that I think about is, that it was just getting light, you [00:04:00] know, because now today, at 5:12 AM, it's totally dark, but there was no daylight savings time then. And so, sunrise would've been around twenty after 6:00, or 5:30 or something.
Woody: Right. And so, Nicole, I mean, give me, just give me a brief overview of like, not the fire, but what did the earthquake damage-wise do to the city?
Nicole: Oh yeah, the damage was major, and it was widespread. So, the front of some buildings collapsed into the street. City Hall suffered some major damage, also exposing some corruption later on down the line about that. And the Hall of Justice, which was then on Portsmouth Square, St. Dominic's Church at Steiner and Bush, Girls’ High School at Geary and Scott, all suffered immensely. And we have a lot of photographs of that on OpenSFHistory.org as well.
Woody: Right. So, you know, masonry buildings do worse in earthquakes. And so, a lot of these stone and [00:05:00] brick buildings basically got shook apart. But in a lot of ways, it's funny, you know, the city sort of, the people, the residents, kind of went out and said, “Hey, that was interesting.” And did a lot of sight-seeing, you know. I kind of feel like everybody thought the danger was over at that point and they were taking pictures and, you know, there were definitely people that were displaced, but they had no idea what was really happening in the next three days in which the fires destroyed most of the city. So, Nicole, like, if I, you know, our office is in the Richmond District, did, it was not as populated, did it suffer damage though during the earthquake?
Nicole: Yeah, some buildings that you can still see today were damaged in the quake, like St. John's Presbyterian Church on Arguello, and the Columbarium, which is now tucked behind, what is that, like, some sort of copy center? Which at the time was situated amongst a larger cemetery there that also suffered some damage. And then the Geary Street [00:06:00] Park and Ocean Railway rail house, which is now an Office Max on Geary and Arguello, all those buildings suffered some damage in the Richmond District.
Woody: Yeah. And we have, I've seen pictures too, of like little Victorian cottages knocked off their foundations and that sort of thing. But it wasn't as populated out here. So, it wasn't, the impact wasn't as great and the fires never reached the Richmond or the Sunset, so we didn't suffer through that. But David, the fires are what did the damage. I mean, we always try to tell this to people who might be new to the city. The earthquake was bad, but it was the fires really that, that were the problem.
David: Yeah. If you talk to any of the old timers, I mean, and now there aren't any survivors. But, it's like, your grandmother, whoever, they would talk about the fire. They wouldn't talk about the earthquake, and they would call it the fire. And the fire is what burned out of control and burned, you know, the whole downtown core, all of downtown into the, [00:07:00] into the Mission District, Telegraph Hill, Russian Hill, Nob Hill, all the way to Van Ness Avenue. I mean, it, it displaced something like 250,000 people.
David: Out of the population of 410,000.
Woody: Right, most of the people.
Woody: Most of the people, at least temporarily were, were homeless, you know, or displaced. They couldn't go into their homes. They were either damaged or they had to escape the fires. Not sure if their house was going to get burned. So, let's talk about that, because that's where Western Neighborhoods Project really comes into this earthquake story is what happens to the refugees. You have tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands of people really, that don't have a house and are starting over. And in the short term, where are they all going to go? Where are you going to put a 100,000, 200,000 refugees in the city? How do you take care of them? What is the plan? So where do they go, Nicole? Where, [00:08:00] you know, if this all happens, where can we put these people?
Nicole: So, they headed towards the parks. People were grabbing whatever they could from their homes. We have, again, we have photos on OpenSFhistory.org, of like, people sitting amongst dressers, whole pieces like dining room sets, things like that. Because they were, they were trying to take whatever they could carry, whatever they could put onto a horse drawn cart and out there. And like, Jefferson Square, Hamilton Square, Dolores Park, Lobos Square, big one in Golden Gate Park. Even the cemeteries around the edge of the Richmond District, almost any open space that people could settle into makeshift tents and, and everything. This is where they ended up.
Woody: Yeah, I mean the pictures are interesting because people have like pianos.
Woody: And birdcages.
David: Steamer trunks, sewing machines, all kinds of stuff. And then we see pictures of stuff, that stuff left on the street and [00:09:00] people walking. We even have a couple of early pictures of crowds camped in Union Square. Which is kind of funny because they, it was kind of wishful thinking because, of course, Union Square burned too.
David: The whole area around it.
Woody: Right. They didn't know that though. I mean, I've read accounts of people after the earthquake going to the Palace, to the St. Francis Hotel and having coffee out front and having breakfast served to them and going, “Wow. That was quite an earthquake, huh?” Not knowing that they're going to have to hightail it West because the fires are going to engulf that entire place.
Nicole: I heard the same about the Palace Hotel too, because they had their own water source on top, and so they thought that the whole place was fireproof, and they did hold it at bay for a while. This is kind of off topic, but the Fire Department figured it out and they were like, “Oh, we're going to have to use that water.”
Woody: Yeah, that didn't help.
Woody: Okay. So, we got the refugees, they're going into the parks. How do you house these refugees? So, at first, I know the Army [00:10:00] provides tents, but this is in April, and they know this is not a long-term solution. There's going to be, they have to like, there's going to be rains at some point. It's going to be muddy. It's going to be unsanitary. There's a real threat of things like cholera, so, dysentery, things like that. So, they have to come up with a stabler way to house all these refugees. And this is where we come in, because at that point they come up with something called the Cottage Plan, which was a very innovative, even today I think of it, as a very innovative idea, in which they create all these little redwood cottages in rows, in the parks, as part of these refugee camps. And housed them in there. And these refugee cottages are still around today, some of them, right David?
David: Yeah. They're all scattered around, well, we'll get to that point. But there are, there's a handful of them, probably around [00:11:00] thirty of those, those earthquake shacks as we call them, still out in the city, in various places. And, and we find more every year.
Woody: Right. And Nicole, there was, yeah, go ahead David.
David: But yeah, I mean, so you say they, they put them in the parks by December of 1906. As the Winter was coming in, there were about thirty official camps. And this was to keep populations in various neighborhoods rather than let them spread out, rather than ghettoize them in one giant place, all the refugees.
Woody: Right. And it was important to keep all these people in the city because the people who are refugees are mostly working people. And these are the people who are going to rebuild the city and there was a big fear, a real valid fear, that San Francisco would be depopulated of people who could help rebuild and stay in San Francisco. So, that was part of it. It was to try to not only just take care of people, but also to keep [00:12:00] them in the city so they could be part of the rebuilding. So, okay, we talked about the camps all over the city, we're Western Neighborhoods Project. Were there any camps, official refugee camps, on the West side of town, Nicole?
Nicole: Yes, there were. I mean, Golden Gate Park had a few but there was also a big one in the Richmond District called Camp Richmond. The Richmond, in general, would have about 1600 refugee shacks in total. And it's interesting, one thing I thought about, Woody, when you were talking about how it wasn't sanitary. I'm wondering if the Army knew all of that because of how unsanitary their Spanish-American War encampment, Camp Merritt, was and how it was a complete failure in 1898? Just wondering that, kind of, off the cuff here, but anyways…
Woody: Also in the Richmond. It was also in the Richmond.
Nicole: Yeah. They're like, “Well, can't do that again. We're going to have to give them permanent shelters.”
Woody: So where was Camp Richmond, in the Richmond? Where was it in the Richmond [00:13:00] District?
Nicole: It was on Park Presidio, if I'm correct, David?
David: Yeah, yeah. It went for a few blocks the whole, pretty much the length of Park Presidio, and then separate, then a couple of blocks wide, I believe.
Woody: Well, it’s the…
David: Park Presidio wasn't quite built at the time.
Woody: It's the opposite. Yeah, it's actually a couple of blocks of Park Presidio, pretty much from, like, Lake Street to roughly between Clement and Geary. Imagine that today. There's no roadway by the way. We think of Park Presidio as this six-lane highway, but they were planning it, they hadn't actually put it in yet. So, it was reserved for this Park Boulevard, but there's no boulevard going down the middle of it. So, it's a big rectangle that they can put all these earthquake cottages on.
Nicole: Yeah, and this…
Woody: Yeah, go ahead.
Nicole: This one opened in November, on November 20th, 1906, and it reached peak capacity in May of 1907 with about 4,000 people in it.
Woody: Wow. There, you know, [00:14:00] the population of the Richmond was probably 500.
David: Yeah, the Richmond Banner, at that time said, “That refugees represent people in various conditions. Some were refined and some were far below them, all losers in the April fire.” And it reached peak capacity more than a year after the fire.
Woody: Because they’re basically still re-settling people in different places. So, the thing about this that I always love about Camp Richmond, is a lot of residents didn't like it because they were worried about all these refugees moving into the neighborhood. But a lot of them were like, this is a built-in audience of people to spend money, right? This is, these are customers. And so, there's a quote here that I like, I think also comes from the Richmond Banner, which was a neighborhood newspaper. “Whatever may be said of other refugee camps, this one in Richmond seems to have settled [00:15:00] down to a busy, happy, and contented permanence. Snug little stores are springing into existence and to an appearance of prosperity, all along 13th Avenue,” which is Funston today, “there are grocers, book sellers, cobblers, barbers, and, verily, a beauty doctor to cure complexions of susceptible vanities. Even the Italian has a store for the sale of this delectable dish, macaroni and spaghetti.”
Nicole: You know what I love about that?
Nicole: All I want to do is eat macaroni and spaghetti while we shelter in place. And I've been buying a ton of, like, beauty products and face masks and stuff to entertain me while I'm here. So human nature really hasn't changed that much.
Woody: So, you're like, you'd be a good earthquake refugee. I just think it's funny, they talk about “the Italian has a store.” There weren't a lot of Italians living in the Richmond at that time. So, you have these refugees from [00:16:00] North Beach, essentially, and so you have this cosmopolitan population moving into the Richmond at once and creating, essentially, a little mini village of its own, in the Richmond District.
David: How did spaghetti get to the Richmond District?
Woody: We know!
Nicole: One Italian guy in Camp Richmond.
Woody: So, so David, it sounds pretty ideal. Everything was great, right? The refugees all live in harmony.
David: Well, not, not exactly. I mean, there was a streetcar strike in May 1907, and some Camp Richmond residents hurled bricks at the Sutter Street line in solidarity with the workers. More police were assigned to the camp due to its proximity to Beer Town on Fulton Street. This is remnant of the 1894 Fair and was later eradicated, right? Drunkenness was the number one reason for expulsion from the camps. And there was also a [00:17:00] concern about women of the town taking a precedence in the neighborhood. Racism reared its ugly head, and the Point Lobos Improvement Club discussed the danger of the invasion of Chinese and Japanese into the district, since these were undesirable residents.
Woody: Right. So, the streetcar strike, I think, is interesting because the refugees are mostly working people and so they're, they're very pro-union. And it was on California Street, at the streetcar, or the, yeah, the streetcar went by.
Woody: And they're basically pelting the scabs who are running the streetcar. So anyway, Camp Richmond…
David: That was happening all over the city, that too, I mean.
Woody: Yeah. So, Camp Richmond was one of the biggest refugee camps. Had the most, maybe, maybe the most earthquake refugee cottages in it. I think it could be.
Woody: And this is the one thing about the earthquake refugee cottages, I said they were an innovative idea, is the idea from the [00:18:00] very beginning was, yes, we're housing these refugees in places that are better than tents, but there's a whole plan to get rid of the cottages when they close the camps. Which is, the refugees could take them with them. They could go buy a cheap lot in the Richmond, or the Sunset, or Bernal Heights, and take the cottage with them and have it be a, sort of, starter home to keep them in the city and to have them start anew.
David: And these were people that probably, that obviously, had lived downtown in tenement apartments and, very dense, and it was, you know, the American dream to own your own home. And so here, this rent-to-own sort of plan was, was something that was elevating all these, the poorest of the poor who were in the camps.
Nicole: And I was trying to find reference to it. There's a West side developer who's, either him or his son, was responsible for the designs of these cottages. I just couldn't find it by the time we, we started recording. [00:19:00]
Woody: I know. It was, so, Joseph Leonard…
Nicole: Ahh! That's what it was!
Woody: Yeah. He was the developer and an architect of Ingleside Terraces. He had a very up and down career. And he was kind of in a down stage when the earthquake happened, and he jumped in as one of the contractors to build the cottages. And his son later claimed credit for designing these very simple cottages.
Woody: Whether he did or didn't, they're just little, they're very simple designs, but…
Nicole: Got it.
Woody: Anyway, all union carpenters by the way.
David: So, built into this plan was to give the parks back to the city and to give these houses to the people. And it happened in great numbers, right? People took their, took their houses and brought them out into the undeveloped areas of the Outer Richmond, and Sunset, and Bernal Heights, as you mentioned. And, and then what happened to them? [00:20:00]
David: They just…
Woody: What do you mean what happened? A lot of them got, a lot of them got put together in groups of two or three, so you could have a bigger house. You take two or three refugee cottages and kind of join them together and so they, you're right David, they're all over the city. And there's a lot of them that are near where former refugee camps were. Bernal Heights has a lot of them because there were empty lots at the top of the hill. The lots are small, which is good for a little earthquake cottage. And Precita Park was an earthquake camp.
Woody: Camp Richmond, of course is a giant camp, so there were a lot of cottages spread throughout the Richmond District. And that's where Western Neighborhoods Project comes in. Because in 2002, when we were a young, fresh-faced little organization with, I don't know, maybe too much confidence, we heard there were four refugee [00:21:00] cottages out in the Sunset District that were planning to be demolished.
Woody: And, and they were, they were four cottages, but they had been combined in the two residences. They each had two cottages a piece, on one lot. And David, what did we do when we heard that news?
David: Well, we said, “Well, well, there's nothing we could do.” That's what you said. And I said, “You know, we should save these things. It'll be a great feather in our cap, and it will set us on a path that we really deserve to be on. It'll be a stretch, but we'll come out stronger.” That's, that's my, that was how I remember it.
Woody: So, it was all about us, not about actually saving these things.
David: No, not really.
Woody: It was all about, like, boosting our prestige. Okay. And I don’t think I said, “Well, there’s nothing we can do.” But we [00:22:00] did, actually, get a lot of help, a lot of volunteers. I remember Mayta and Jensen, the contractors, especially Reed over there, helped us. Rich Green, who, a lot of donations of lumber. Sheedy Crane, actually, moved these cottages for us to the Zoo.
David: That was a very dramatic day when they hoisted those earthquake shacks off the lots on Kirkham Street.
Woody: Right. And then we fixed up one of them in the back lot of the Zoo. And thank you, Zoo, for letting us do this at the time. And we brought it out to Market Street, near Third, for the centennial of the earthquake in 2006. And we had it on that, we had it out right on Market Street for about a month, a little less, three weeks maybe. And it was free for people to see what these cottages were about, what the story was. And I don't know if you remember David, but the Katrina, the hurricane, had hit New Orleans the year [00:23:00] before. And so, all of this was so relevant because they were coming up with a plan for Katrina refugees.
Woody: And they came up with these FEMA trailers and I was like, see, this is why history is important, is that this stuff never goes away. It's sort of like we're all talking about the Spanish Flu now, right? With the pandemic going on. So, all right, so what did we learn from that? Now, now, by the way, that fixed up cottage is back at the Zoo and on display. And you can go see it if you go into the Zoo, when you can go into the Zoo again.
Woody: And it has some interpretive panels inside and tells the story of the earthquake refugee cottages.
David: And two of the others also got refurbished by a nonprofit in Oakland. And you could see those near Jack London Square, I believe.
Nicole: I have to say this was all pre-Nic, but this story has been told many times in the office as organizational lore. And I always just pictured [00:24:00] David sitting in this lonely cottage on Market Street by himself, like peeling an orange. That's been one of, like, these mythical images cemented in my mind. So, I'm glad that we get to share this imagery for all of our podcast listeners now.
Woody: Yeah. David, David was being greeter and caretaker for a lot of that time. He also had the great idea of putting out a pickle jar, suggested that visitors give us 25 cents.
Nicole: That's where the pickle jar came from!?
David: That's right. We collected $14,000 in change in the six weeks that we were there.
Nicole: And just one pickle.
Woody: I think it was three weeks, and I don't think it was $14,000, but I like that sound. All right, so…
David: It was a really long time.
David: It felt long.
Woody: So, we have to say, because it's the earthquake anniversary, that this is going to happen again. Again, it's a lesson of history. There's going to be another [00:25:00] earthquake. It's not, you know, like if or maybe, it's going to happen. It's a matter of when and we don't know. It could happen in ten minutes. So, we have to be prepared for that. And some, I think now with this pandemic going on, we know a little bit about what that means. But not only having supplies in house but having a Go Bag. Having a way that you could, like, have your stuff in the middle of the night, find it quickly, get your shoes on, and get out of the house if you need to. So, there's lots of information out there on the internet about how to be prepared. I think 72hours.org is still in place. That's a good place to start, about what you should do to prepare, get yourself ready. So, do that. But now it's time for the Pearl of the podcast. David, what's the Pearl?
David: The Pearl of the podcast, Woody: 5,610 [00:26:00] individual refugee cottages were built during that 1906, 1907 time to accommodate the unhoused population of San Francisco.
Woody: And we think there's at least thirty, maybe forty or fifty, kind of, hidden around throughout the city today.
David: Yeah. And we have a list on our website, outsidelands.org. And you can go by, you can walk by these houses and see them today. That's, it's really one of the single, tangible objects that, that exists from the 1906 earthquake.
Woody: That's right.
Woody: Okay, now it's time for listener mail. Nicole, how does somebody send in listener mail?
Nicole: It's very easy. We're all on our computers all the time now, so you can just shoot us an email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Woody: And did anybody write in and send us listener mail?
Nicole: Oh yeah, we had, [00:27:00] got a special VIP listener mail from Ray Galli who wrote in after last week's Galli Builder’s podcast. “Ray Galli was my great-uncle. My dad, Bob Galli, was one of his nephews, and my dad bought a junior five from his uncle in 1951 at 2825 Rivera.” So, the family business stayed in the family, and Ray lives in Southern California now, though his daughter lives in a Doelger house on Vicente.
Woody: Whoa, treason.
Nicole: I know, I know.
Woody: So, this guy who wrote in, Ray Galli, is the same name as the guy we were talking about, Ray Galli?
Woody: Okay, cool.
Woody: Anybody else write in?
Woody: Who, who?
David: Well, WNP Board Member, David Chang, grew up in a Galli home. In Diamond Heights. We mentioned that they, that the Gallis built up in Diamond Heights too. He says, [00:28:00] “My childhood home in Diamond Heights purchased new by my parents in the mid-‘60s is a Galli home. Three bedroom, three bath, two-story house with a backyard patio. I believe the price was about $45K in 1965.”
Woody: That's a deal.
David: Along, yeah, sounds good. “Along the tract, they would alternate mirroring the floor plan, so when we went into the next-door neighbor's house, it was like seeing a reflection of our house.” That’s David.
Woody: I like stories like that.
Woody: All right. Now it's time for events. Now, of course, right now, we're a little, you know, hamstrung about putting on events. But if you go to outsidelands.org/events, you can read about all our plans. And you know, the, the most important thing that I think we have to remember is, we are going to have events again. [00:29:00]
Woody: And events, I mean, I made this point like five years ago. I said, events are where it's at, you have to meet people face to face. It's the most important way to share history. And so, it's still important and a priority for Western Neighborhoods Project. But, we're going to kind of do events now, even though we can't see each other face to face. What kind of things are we trying to do now, Nicole?
Nicole: So instead of calling them events, we should think of them as happenings, you know?
Woody: Oh, that sounds good.
Nicole: Yeah. So, we can't meet face to face, but we can meet online in virtual happenings. We're putting up news articles and videos celebrating Golden Gate Park’s 150th anniversary in place of our exhibition that was supposed to be installed at the end of last month but will be coming as soon as we can reopen. And I've just finished what David is now calling the definitive article on the General John Jay Pershing statue, because I went full blown Nicole Meldahl research on it. And there's a coordinated video [00:30:00] that goes along with that. So, keep an eye on our website because we're putting up new, fun things every day. And if you have something you want us to research, let us know, because I can do that right now.
David: I will say that our, all of our social media has kind of bumped up the, bumped up the activity too. So, we're on Twitter, we're on, we're on Instagram. both outsidelands and OpenSFHistory have feeds on both of those, both of those mediums. And Facebook, of course, we're posting all the time. So…
Nicole: And we mentioned our OpenSFHistory.org photographs earlier. Did you know that you can download all of those photographs, a watermarked version for free and they make wonderful Zoom backgrounds? So that's a good way to spice up your next video conference with some historical backgrounds.
David: I think we should examine doing some live [00:31:00] events with Zoom. I've, I've been in a couple of live events and that's something that I think, it is a possibility for us.
David: So, we'll do that.
Woody: Great. Well, you know, this is usually where we tell people to become a member and how easy it is that they can go to outsidelands.org and click the “Become a Member” link. But now more than ever, as you might imagine, we're all in this together and we need your help, and we need your support. We can't have these events. Everything's kind of slowed down, of course, but donations and memberships, these are the things that keep this podcast happening. So, if you're one of these people who is getting a stimulus check or a refund of some kind, and you can actually afford to pass that on to one of these worthy organizations that you want to support like us, we totally encourage you to do so. We want to be around for a long time after this. We're all going to be in a much better shape in a while, but we just got to get over this hump. So, if you've been thinking about being a member, donating, [00:32:00] this is a great time to do it. It'd be the most welcome time and we'd really appreciate your support. So, got a preview for next week. We're going to take a closer look, a really close look, at one of the very first homes built in Sea Cliff and a longtime resident who was named after, what Nicole?
Nicole: Another notable San Franciscan.
Woody: Wow. There's like so many things in this next podcast that I can't even unravel it.
David: Are we doing a Ray Galli, Ray Galli and Ray Galli podcast next week?
Woody: It's like…
David: I can't wait!
Woody: It's like…
Woody: The mirror homes in Diamond Heights. It's all just reflection of itself. So…
Nicole: This one's all about the ladies.
Woody: Oh, all right. Well, maybe I won't be there. Okay, I'll see you next week folks.
Ian: Outside Land San Francisco is recorded by Ian Hadley, content Creation and media [00:33:00] email@example.com.
Nicole: To learn more about the Western Neighborhoods Project and more on San Francisco history, go to Outsidelands.org. You can also find us on social media at Facebook, which is outsidelands with an S, at Twitter, which is outsidelandz with a Z, and on Instagram, which is outsidelandz, also with a Z. And check out our historic San Francisco images website at OpenSFHistory.org.